2012年8月4日 星期六

玻璃 歷史篇 History

Origin and evolution
Glass is a transparent material found in the daily life. But where did it come from and who first make it? There is still no exact answer to these questions. But one fact can be sure of, at least from the legend, is that people accidentally discovered that when combine sand, soda-line and ashes in high temperature, they become glass. Latter, people tried to combine the same materials and fired in high temperature and there is the first man-made glass. We will describe the origin of glass in the followings to better understand this special material.
由水常雄(1992)對於玻璃的起源有如下較詳細的整理[1]:「傳說玻璃產生於距今約5000年左右,而玻璃的起源主要有三種論說,其一是起源於美索布達米亞,亦即由亞洲傳入,主張起源於美索布達米亞的學者是英國的埃及學大師Frinders Petridl853─l942);其二是起源於埃及,因為其後有許多埃及出土的資料可以佐証;最後是近年由美國芝加哥大學LOppenheim所展開的起源於敘利亞之論說。由於前二者所發表的資料欠缺正確出土的根據而遭到質疑與否定,而起源於敘利亞之說則由於黏土板的記載獲得解讀,
以及羅馬的博物學者 Gaius linius Secundus的大作『博物誌』(Nature History)、英國的地理學者 Strabon 的『地理誌』(Strabon Geographia)、歷史學家Tacitus Cornelius 的『歷史』(Tacitus Cornelius Historia),以及另外一位歷史學家 Josephus Flavius 的『猶太戰記』(Josephus Flavius Bellum Judaicum)等關於玻璃傳說的記載,受到後世學者的白砂成分分析,以及砂上的玻璃生成實驗,証實了玻璃產生的可能性。上述諸傳說的記載當中以羅馬的博物學者 Gaius plinius Secundus的『博物誌』(Gaius plinius Secundus Historia Naturatis)對於玻璃起源的敘述最為詳盡,其第36卷第65項關於玻璃起源的傳說如下:
Japanese glass historian Mr. Yoshimizu Tsuneo (1992) mentioned in his dissert about the origin of glass: “A general believe is that glass was discovered around 5000 years ago. There are three theories about its origin; one from English Egyptologist Frinders Petrid (1853-1942) who believed that the glass was originated in Mesopotamia, introduced from Asia; the second theory is that glass originally discovered at Egypt, which can be affirmed by many Egyptian archeology data; the third theory is the assay developed recently by L. Oppenheim of Chicago University. He claimed that the glass is originated from Syria. The first two theories confronted strong challenge and rejection due to lacking of proper archeology proofs. The last theory is supported by decoding of a clay board, and by articles such as “Nature History”, a masterpiece by Roman Natural historian Gaius Plinius Secundus, “Geographic History” by English geographer Strabon, “ History” by historian Tacitus Cornelius, and “Josephus Flavius Bellum Jusaicum” by the other historian Josephus Flavius. They all recorded the legends related to glass. Through white sand analysis and sand-to-glass experiment by scholar latter, they proved the possibility of glass production at the ancient time. Among those articles, “ Nature History” provides the most thorough description about the origin of glass In Volumn 36 Item 65:
In the mid of sub mountain area of Mont. Caramelo next to Israel and Syria (famed by the name Phoenician), there was a lake called Candelbia. It was considered the origin of river Belus which flowed into the ocean five miles downstream at the colonial city Putoramaiwos. The river flowed slowly and the water is not suitable for drinking. However, it was conceived holy water and used in the ceremony. This river contained turbidity current which generated deep waterway downstream. Only in the period of low tide, one can see the river sand. That’s because the waves rushed out the dirt and left clean sand. Through astringent effect by the sea water, the sand became a useful material. The shore was less then half a mile. Nonetheless, glass production had developed within this area for hundreds of year. Before, it was a sea port to Phoenician sold soda Merchantman who disembarked here. In order to prepare food, the merchants made their rounds in the shore finding no stones to serve as stoves for supporting cooking pots. Instead they used the merchandise soda lime bricks to hold the stoves. When soda lime melted with sands in a high heat, they noticed a few strips of translucent liquid flowing out that they had never seen before. This is the allegedly origin of glass.”

Yoshimizu Tsuneo1992World Glass Art CollectionsTokyo Japan:     Page 138~141

2012年7月20日 星期五

10種改善切割技巧的方法 (熔合玻璃)

1. 買你能負擔的起的最好的切割刀

2. 不同玻璃厚度使用不同尺寸的切割刀
切割輪的尺寸與你要施用的壓力有關,切割輪越小,施力越省。小切割輪適用於切薄玻璃,這種切割輪直徑約0.25公分。切割輪的角度大小也與施力有關。 120°適用於2-3mm厚的玻璃,135°適用於約10mm厚的玻璃,10mm以上的玻璃,使用160°較適合。

3. 保持正確的姿勢及角度

4. 一定要使用切割潤滑油

5. 在可能的範圍內,讓切割線(Score)兩邊保持等量的玻璃

6. 集中注意保持穩定的壓力及速度

7. 絕對不要在同一切割線切兩次

8. 切曲線時最好由內部開始切割
在切曲線時,儘量由玻璃的內部開始切,對於比較複雜的形狀,你在切的時候要想一想,這個玻璃會在哪個地方開始破裂,玻璃一般會從邊緣地方開始破裂,所以可以的話, 從遠離邊緣的曲線開始切。

9. 避免用切割刀敲擊切割線

10. 切割後立即扳斷玻璃

1. Grudi Gritsch of the Glasfachschule Kramsach, Austria, former research director at the Bullseye factory and on e helluva glasscutter.
2. Walker, Brad. Contemporary Warm Glass: Aguide to Fusing, Slumping, and Related Kiln-Forming Techniques.2002.

2012年7月7日 星期六

融合玻璃(Fusing Glass)-熔合玻璃-創作

         課程內容包含「切割123」、「融合123」、「粉線123」及「創作123」四類課程,不僅有專業的老師現場指導,還透過教學影片的欣賞瞭解國外大師們如何創作玻璃藝術(Glass Art)。透過課程,可以讓學員由淺到深理解玻璃特性、融合玻璃創作要訣,以及應用表現方式。